Just INTRODUCTION in teams (JIT), that it means at the accurate moment, is an enterprise boarding that says not to wastefulness and retrabalho, and yes for perfect quality and supply zero, that is, to produce (goods and services) at the accurate moment where they are needed, preventing motionless supplies or customers waiting; what it characterizes a pulled system of production. Been born at the beginning of years 1950, philosophy JIT came with the definitive objective of reerguer its companies of leached ashes of the postwar period. . The pioneer in the use of this new tool was Toyota Motor Company, and not by chance, since Japan being a country supertown and with scarcity of resources, by itself acquired the culture of little wastefulness and high aggregate value. Therefore, also we can find JIT as Toyota System of Production. Currently the philosophy of the permeia JIT the daily one of many companies, occidental people and orientals, who search through it a competitive advantage in the market. For the reach of its objectives? supply zero, perfect quality, without wastefulnesses and/or retrabalho? the JIT counts on a fan of techniques that control the production of good or services. Read additional details here: Philip Vasan. One of these techniques, that will be boarded in this work, is the Kanban, Japanese word that means card, that consists ' ' in the transference of material of a period of training to another one of operao' ' (SLACK, CHAMBERS, JOHNTON, 2002). In this work, the concepts of the JIT will be boarded, with prominence for the technique of control of the called production Kanban, with the objective to explain its functioning, as well as its contributions and disadvantages that it causes for the company adept. This is a bibliographical research that will count on literature, summaries, articles and Internet. ON JUST IN TEAMS According to Slack, Chambers, Johnton (2002), JIT ' ' it is a disciplined boarding, that he aims at to improve the global productivity and to eliminate desperdcios' '.
This can be considered as the great challenge of century 21, for if not dealing with an easy decision for the nations, of a side the vital economic growth for its survival, defining of a simple form as the addition of the goods and services per capita generated there. Whereas sustainable development can be defined as that capable one to supply the necessities of the current generation, without compromising the capacity to take care of the coming generations, stimulating a conscientious consumption of products, through the awareness of that the natural resources are finite, that is, that one day they will go to finish. To only have an idea if the developing countries to decide to adopt the model of economic growth adopted by the developed countries, that one that together with appeared the industrial revolution of large-scale production for reduction of the costs, stimulating the wild consumption of products and services and adding the total indifference with the natural resources, would have a catastrophic scene, a time that the natural resources would not support so great demand, in this scene we would have an increase in the consumption of fsseis fuels equivalent the ten times and of two hundred times of the natural resources compared with the standard of current consumption. If you are not convinced, visit Verizon. It is understandable, however that the poor countries need to open its markets for capitation of international financial resources from there to start if to develop, however as we saw they will have to appeal to other mechanisms and not to the methods applied for the rich countries. To deal with a question to dspar, we can use distinct concepts, the Estruturalismo (Amitai Etzioni) for that like a vision technique more, in which defends that optimum method of solution of conflicts is adopted in agreement in which if he is inserted. On the other hand if to appeal to the teachings of the buddhism, doctrine of bigger acceptance in ocidente, and this in case that condizente with the boarded content, standes out ahead that of extreme ways, must be followed the way of the way, that is, that one that better it harmonizes the divergences if to add some principles of the Japanese administration as the CHANGE of combat to wastefulnesses and the KAIZEN of the improvement continues, applied of gradual form, stipulating goals and benefits for the nations that to fulfill who to them thus know would not arrive at a solution for this conflict, for the time being fit the companies to face the support not more as essential a competitive differential and yes as something for its survival in a global market and each more competitive time..
In accordance with ROBBINS (1999) the organizacional culture would not be more than what a system of partilhados meanings, set of characteristics key that an organization values, where if includes characteristics basic, which reflect its essence. According to CHIAVENATO (2005), the first step to know an organization is to know its culture. To be part of an organization is to assimilate its culture. To live in an organization, to work in it, to act in it, to act in its activities, to develop career in it mean to participate closely of its organizacional culture. The way for which the people interact in an organization, the mission, the reinante philosophy, the social values, the predominant ways of behavior, the presuppositions underlying, the excellent aspirations and subjects in the interactions between the members are part of the culture of the organization. Each organization has its proper characteristics, its personality, its way of being and happening and its peculiarities.
In summary each organization has its culture. The culture is an important concept to understand the social societies human beings and groups. The culture can be understood in the antropolgico and historical direction because it inhabits in the soul of each society or organization. It is who distinguishes the way for which the people interact ones with the others e, over all, for which if they hold, they feel, they think, they act and they work (CHIAVENATO 2005). The organizacional culture represents the informal norms and not writings that guide the behavior of the members of an organization in day-by-day and that it directs its action for the reach of the objectives, In the deep one, is the culture that defines the mission and provokes the birth and the establishment of the objectives of the organization.
The standardization of the products (so great and weight) for the products that are vendidos by unit, so that it does not have damages, since a bigger product, certainly, spends more raw material to be produced. The quality of the training of hand of direct workmanship of the company is qualified, therefore monthly the responsible ones for the production receive courses technician and practical that they are offered gratuitously by the suppliers of products. Therefore on this the previsibility of the results of the processes depends, condition necessary also to take care of to the requirements of the market consumer who each time less tolerates the variability of the essential characteristics of the products and characteristic services of the management level, until the specific requirements that demand elaboration of procedures, formalizao, maintenance and improvement of these. The effect of the standardization process and qualification of generated hand of direct workmanship in the analyzed company will be beneficial and such benefits could be observed in the following categories: product and customers. With regard to the products, the standardization makes possible increase of the quality, reduction of production costs, reduction of wastefulnesses of insumos, improvement of the operational controls, beyond the reduction of the index of claim of the customers on the same of significant form. Finally, one evidences I number that it of customers increases, as well as the indices of satisfaction of these with the quality and trustworthiness of the product.
Ahead of the presented one, one concludes that, for the case in study, of standardization and qualification of hand of direct workmanship result in significant effect of beneficial character, of diverse natures and levels, that managed proactively can result in the attainment of exclusive competitive advantage for the company and consequences profits of market, credibility and improvement of relationship with the internal and external agents. 5. CONCLUSION the prompt valuation of each attribute discloses in them that it has different importncias between itself and these are interrelated.
Question two identified the company where these professionals act. The names of the same ones will not be divulged, for confidential questions, however all are rendering companies of services of logistic, importation, exportation and transporters who englobam different the modal ones of transport. The area of performance of the professionals who had answered the research was the questioning of question 3, that it is displayed in Graph 3. Graph 3: Area of performance of the professionals Source: The author the percentile greater, how much to the area of performance of the professionals, it was the advertising, with 38%; the logistic International, 24%; the maritime importation and the operational part of the department of logistic both, with 14% each; remaining 10% for international the air cargo area. Read more here: Ron O’Hanley. The time that each professional works in its area of performance was the question of question 4, whose resulted they are displayed in Graph 4. Graph 4: Time of work in the area Source: The author From these results, can be observed that great part, that is, 57% of the professionals of the logistic International already works more than has 5 years in the area; 19% act in the branch enter the 3 5 years; others 24% are inserted in this market have less than 3 years.
The objective of some questions is to identify the contact of the professional with the English language in some questions. In question 5, the boarding was the accomplishment or not of international trips. The percentage was of 71% of that they do not carry through international trips and 29% of that they reponderam affirmatively. The professional who answered this positive procedural question, would have to describe the frequency of the accomplishments of these trips, and the results had been the following ones: – 50% a time to the year – 33% 2 times to year – 17% 5 times or more per year.
2,9 Costs of Production of Milk The cost of production of milk always was white of warm quarrels between the researchers of the area, which had the differences in the procedures of calculation adopted by these. , The necessity of adoption of an only metodolgico criterion is really essential so that the results are significant and can be compared. Pessatti (2008) affirms that: & ldquo; It can be perceived that on the part of the researchers and the entities of research everything he is being made so that the cost of milk production becomes most real possible, allowing to the identification of ineficincias and the taking of decisions in the milk property. It remains a question to be made: How to make so that these information arrive at the producer and they are executed? & rdquo;. The same complete author affirming that & ldquo; There it is the biggest challenge, therefore, in Present-day Brazil still the milk producers are minority that they calculate its costs of production, basically alleging that this procedure does not become necessary. For these, they open the eyes, therefore they can be paying for produzir.& rdquo;.
This means that many producers due its degree of escolaridade do not obtain to determine of correct form its costs and thus, as the author above mentioned itself, can be paying to produce. 2.9.1 Types of Expenditure The basic objectives for estruturao of an expenditure system are closely on to the intentions the one that if destine, that is, financier, operational and strategical (PLAYER, KEYS and LACERDA, 1997, P. 8). Dutra (1995) presents the methods of expenditure under the function to determine the way as cost will be attributed to the products. One understands that the expenditure method is the form for which the costs are appropriate to its final carriers. For Koliver (2000), the expenditure method is mentioned to it as being to the separation of the fixed and changeable costs, or of the necessary recognition of its behaviors ahead of variation in the degree of occupation of the entity. The three main boarded methods of expenditure for the bibliography of costs in Brazil mention the expenditure to it for absorption, to the changeable expenditure and the ABC expenditure. 188.8.131.52 Defrays for Absorption For Koliver (2000), the expenditure for absorption if characterizes for the appropriation of all the costs of the internal operational cycle to the final carriers of the costs.
In other words, it results in the appropriation of all the costs of the manufacture functions, administration and sales of the produced goods and services, are they indirect right-handers or. According to Horngren, Foster and Datar (2000, P. 211) defray for absorption & ldquo; it is the method of supply expenditure where all the costs, 0 variable and fixtures, are considered costs inventoried. That is, the supply & ldquo; absorve& rdquo; all the costs of fabricao& rdquo;. Lopes de S (1990, p.109) affirms that the expenditure for absorption is & ldquo; used expression to assign process of verification of costs that if bases on dividing or dividing all the elements of the cost, way that, each center or nucleus absorbs or receives
Intellectual capital? The competitive advantages of this intangible asset Luciano Vitor Segatto So Paulo University – UNIP, So Paulo, SP. Summary In an environment of intense competitiveness, the necessary staff of marketing of much creativity to work a product, in way to take it the consumers and to locate anticipating it the competition. In the companies who apiam the management of the knowledge, the Intellectual Capital has fort influence in the elaboration of the campaigns of Marketing, creating new strategies product to enter it in the marked one and to conquer the consumer. In this article to the diverse ideas and positionings of consecrated authors will be shown, in the attempt to provoke a reflection on this important subject, that nor always is remembered by the organizations. The article is composed in five parts: final introduction, development with theoretical basement, consideraes, bibliographical suggestions for future studies and references. Word-key Marketing; Intellectual capital; Strategy. Introduction Currently, with the wild advance of the technology and the results of the globalization process, the information is a crucial item in the formularization and implementation of a successful strategy of marketing. One of the great challenges for the marketing professionals is to make use of information with precision and to discover new latent markets, that is, a segment discovered, whose demand can be materialize will have placed for sale an adjusted product, therefore in a market of this type the demand is not zero before offers of the product, what it becomes basic the marketing professional to understand until point the competition takes care of the necessities of the consumers. It is perceived that this new reality comes demanding changes of paradigms and concepts in all the marketing areas and the companies search, with this, to adapt its flows of information traditionally, increasing the degree of envolvement of the department of marketing in activities associates to other functional areas.
Before exactly that a company can effectively commercialize the products of them with the consumers, it must understand fully what you want and need that definitive product. However, what it is desired of a product is not the same for all in a market, therefore, real differences between the preferences of products exist. Therefore, the companies must be intent to these details of the differences of desires. After identified potential segments of market, these would have to be analyzed. Diverse forms exist of segmentation, but nor all are effective. The segments need to be: Measurable? It tends to be possible to measure the size, power of purchase, and other characteristics of the segments. The preferences of differences for the products must be identifiable and capable to be measurable.
Substantial – the segments are enough great and/or lucrative Accessible – the segments can be reached and be served with directed programs; You differentiated – the segments are conceptually distinct and differently answer the diverse programs and elements of marketing-mix. Clear differences in the preferences of the consumer for the product must exist. You set in motion – efficient programs can be formulated to attract and to serve the segments. The process to select, to segment, to analyze and to sketch a profile of a potential market for better atingiz it with a made up of customizado marketing is the process of election of the white market. (Penny M. Simpsom, 2001). The process is composed for eight tasks that are interrelated. Below it follows the eight tasks: 1) It identifies the total market; 2) It determines the segmentation necessity; 3) It determines the bases of the segmentation; 4) It traces the profile of each selected segment; 5) It evaluates the potential profitability of each segment and selects segments to direct itself; 6) It selects the positioning strategy; 7) It develops and it implements a made up of adequate marketing; e, 8) Monitors, Evaluates and Has controlled.
One of the most immediate consequences lode of community, that each antenada time more, demands access to the information, destination of the public resources and its results, and conditional to this it will also demand new technologies, not straightforward applicatory (softwares) or machines (hardwares), but processes and services, and this stops for the perfectioning of the executors of the tasks that go to be ' ' dispensadas' ' as the offered products. The fiscalization extremely is fortified, through the Courts of Accounts, the Public prosecution service, and logical for the Community. It now fits to diagnosis and to implement institucional actions of TIC? Technology, Innovation and Science? capable to take care of the legal requirements, fiscalization of the public resources, modernization and automation of the administration, and to generate resulted positive that can be applied in the improvement of the services, what it culminates in the attendance of the necessities of the community. To create, to dare, to consider improvements and to innovate are the ways for that they want to move course of a moment or a history, so that the public administration can be seen with ' ' good olhos' '. Never the contributors, the society or the citizen so intent, involved and had been syntonized with the public thing, mainly the destination of the resources, the compliments of the projects the accomplishment or the reached conclusion of workmanships and results. Defined the ways for a modernization project, in the current conjuncture, with legal requirements, volume, demand and time for the execution, we must make use of the Technology of the Information, tool this, essential essential and adjusted for the efficient, efficient and effective exercise of the administration, and not only this, capable to add value to the process through the public administration to put resulted. We must stand out that miraculous solution in the area of technology of the information does not exist, that is, so that if he can get good result, exists the necessity to conciliate action? processes, practical, technology the papers, that is, must walk together, an action complement to another one, bring integrated and corporative solutions.
The small food production, with the deficiencies of the supplying system, pressured the prices wholesale of the products agricultural, that chagavam if to raise above of the General Index of Preos (IGP) during the 1960/1964 years of. To face the supplying crises, the federal government was armed of legislation and of extraordinary instruments, it reorganized the sector I publish, creating the Brazilian bell of Alimentao (COBAL) and the Brazilian bell of storage (CIBRAZEM), and still strengthened the controlling and fiscalizador paper of the SUNAD (THIN, 1997, p.217). The great structural problems of Brazilian agriculture continued not being equated or decided, and the omission more notable says respect ace interdependent questions of the relations of work and the agrarian structure. One of estimated basic of the agricultural politics in vigor the time inhabited in the belief of that the intent agrarian structure did not represent none empecilho to the increase of sectorial production and of the productivity. The decade of 1950 was marked by the emergency of the social fights in the field and by the organization of the social movements of peasants and agricultural workers, demanding above all the land redistribution and the instauration of the labor laws. The foundation of the ULTAB – Union of the Farmers and Agricultural Workers in Brazil, of 1954 and the organization of the first league peasant in Pernambuco, in 1955, was the initial landmark of this movement, that would culminate with the foundation of the CONTAG – National Confederation of the Workers of Agriculture in 1963. In the same year, it was promulgated, the statute of the agricultural worker, extending to the agricultural workers some of the rights that much time has had been granted to the urban workers: professional register, remunerated weekly rest, vacation, Christmas bonus, and others. As for the agrarian reform, the resistance of the congress, beyond the inhibiting devices of the land dispossession, enrolled in 1946 constitution, had a conduction of the debates to an institucional impasse and nothing it was materialize. .