One another component of economic value was the sugar cane-of-sugar that was characterized as an important agricultural product of the Brazilian economy since the Colonial Period. Its changes had arrived at the Brazilian territory in the year of 1532 in the expedition of Martin Alfonso de Souza having been implanted in diverse captainships of the country. However, in the Rio Grande of the North, the culture of this product did not get great success, restricting itself it the south of the State. In captainship, the most important device was the Device of the Cunha, established in 1630. Ahead of this, Toscano (2001) affirms that with climate less favorable to the culture of the sugar cane-of-sugar, the state becomes center of creation of cattle for supplying of the too much captainships northeast. At this time, also it starts to gain importance the exploration of the salt, that soon attracts the dutch interest.
With the bad performance of the canavieira activity in the State, the cattle one, that basically it was a economic activity of subsistence, was developed with the creation of cattle in great farms destined to the supplying of the other next captainships. The farms of cattle creation had originated the districts that today form the 166 cities of the state of the Rio Grande of the North. Currently, the economy of the Rio Grande of the North meets in full development. This is decurrent of some areas of economic expansion that are productive bases of the market. The production is perceived that and the generation of wealth and income of the State continues depending, mainly, of the natural resources. The economic-social development north-river-grandense is deposited in some economic sectors. The salt, the oil, the natural gas, the fruticultura, the tourism, the ore, the carcinicultura and the bovinocultura are the main sectors. In ' ' ranking' ' of the Northeast Region, with data of the IBGE and taking as base the socioeconmicos pointers, the State, per two decades come assuming the fifth place with instability, taking for base to the per capita income and the growth of the GIP.